Installing the electrical installation of your new home yourself is a job within the reach of a careful, methodical handyman. and possessing (or agreeing to acquire), a minimum of basic skills in electricity. It is enough to apply to the letter them regulations in force, to know a few terms of the trade, to know where to find the right information and in case of doubt, to systematically check the validity of the options chosen.
The NFC 15-100 standard: a bible to know everything about your future installation
The electrical installation of housing and buildings for commercial use must comply with the regulatory requirements of the NFC 15-100 standard, relating to low voltage installations. There is no need to read the entire standard. However, it is essential to be aware of most of the obligations it imposes, even before starting the study of your project. Many compilationsoften very detailed, can be consulted, free of charge, on the websites of most manufacturers in the sector. Make sure that these documents include the latest updates published by theAFNOR.
You will find, among other recommendations:
- The rules to respect for the protection of people (electrocution) and property (fires);
- The composition of the allocation tables ;
- l’equipment minimum pair pièce (living room, bedrooms, kitchen, bathroom, WC, exterior, etc.);
- le type of pipes authorizedin visible or recessed path;
- the section and the color conventional conductors for each circuit;
- them electrical protections applicable per use;
- the uses relating to technical housing ducts (GTL) ;
- the constitution and the wiring paintings distribution and communication cabinets;
- them specific procedures to sensitive volumes (bathtubs, showers, etc.) .
Preliminary study for the electrical installation
Before starting the study, you must define the precise location of the general distribution board. It’s the zero point you planethe origin of housing service shaft (GTL) and where the supply lines (TPC*2 corrugated ducts) emerge from the slab. Of conventional color, these sheaths protect the earthing, electricity supply, telecommunications cables and any additional networks (electric gate, outdoor lighting, power supply to ancillary premises, swimming pool, etc.), in their underground route. They are connected to the various boxes, located at the property boundary or distribute the points of use distributed on the ground. They are buried to a depth of at least 60 cm and are surmounted by a detection grid of conventional color throughout their course.
1 – Design the electrical diagram
The electrical diagram dons a extreme importance. Its precision, accuracy and completeness determine the smooth running of the future construction site. It allows to foresee, in particular:
- length, diameter and type of pipes;
- length, section, color and type of cables;
- exhaustive list of equipment and (switches, power and telecom sockets, DCL, electrical panels, differential protections, circuit breakers, recessed boxes, junction boxes, home automation systems, heating, air conditioning, water heaters, alarms, etc. );
The compilation of these elements also makes it possible toestablish the precise list and the had to of stationery. Allow a 15% increase for small supplies, omissions or modifications. Also provision for additional costs:
- amount of the certificate of conformity issued by the CONSUEL: (+/- €130.00);
- connection, according to the estimate drawn up by ENEDIS: (+/- €300, for serviced land);
- opening of line by the energy supplier: (+/- €50.00).
How to make the electrical diagram?
Drawing up the electrical diagram is one of the major difficulties of the electrical installation. Know that you can negotiate the supply of the regulatory architectural electrical diagram, with an architect or a specialized design office. If you want to maintain complete control of the site, you will need a building planon which you will sleep, to their precise locationwhere required, the following elements:
1 – The GTL and the tableau main modular distribution.
2 – All of the appliances and equipment (sockets, ceiling lights, telecom and TV sockets, radiators, etc.), respecting, per room, the minimum equipment imposed by the standard. Connect, in one line, each of these devices, in a coherent circuit, up to their protection on the switchboard. Each device must be identified by a numbered symbol (PC1, PC2, PC3, SI1, VV1…). Respect the standardized colors, i.e. red for the phases, blue for the neutrals, yellow/green for the earths, purple for the transfers.
3 – Note, for each circuitthe standardized cable section:
- 1,5 mm², for the circuits 10 A (lighting);
- 2,5 mm² for the circuits 16 A (prises 16 A) ;
- 4 mm² and 6 mm², according to power, for specialized circuits (ovens, heating, washing machine…). Each of these devices must have its own dedicated circuit and protection.
- The telecom circuits and coaxial have their particular characteristics.
The standard imposes certain additional details on the plan. For example, for a living room, the diagram must include:
- 1 ceiling light;
- the table position low (under the ceiling);
- the location of the simple ignition (SA), two-way (VV) or push-button switches, conventionally placed at a height of 1.10 m;
- 1 x 16 A socket, per tranche 4 m² of surface with at least 5 outlets until 28 m² et 7 taken beyond ;
- 1 TV socket, withreceiver location ;
- 1 telephone socket (RJ45), withhandset location.
As such, your living room is deemed to comply with the standard, but nothing prevents, of course, from adding elements of comfort at will.
4 – Grounding is the weapon anti-electrocution compulsory for any electrical installation. It evacuates leakage currents, but also participates in the operation of differential protections. Appliances and metal elements in the house must be connected to this circuit, especially in damp environments (equipotential bonding). Only devices double isolation, specially designed for wet environments are exceptions to this rule. The circuit consists of a diffusing organ buried, responsible for dissipating the electrical charge in the ground, which can take different forms:
- 25 mm² bare copper braid loop current around the foundation footing
- bare cable laid at the bottom of a linear trench at least 1 m deep;
- one or more galvanized steel stakesstuck vertically in the ground up to 2 m deep;
A cut-off bar (or measuring bar), obligatory, is attached to the wall, usually near the GTL. The bar/diffuser connection is ensured by a bare cable of 25 mm² and the departure by 2 yellow/green sheathed cables, of section 16 mm², to the main switchboard and 6 mm²to the equipotential bonding.
The résistance of the earth circuit must be less than 50 Ω. Failure to comply with this measure is grounds for rejection of the certificate of conformity of the CONSUEL, required for connection to the network.
Timeline of installation work
Technically, installation can begin as soon as the house is out of water out of air, partitions installedbut imperatively avant than the screeds of soil are executed, because many pipes will be embedded in its mass. the circuit to be installed firstis the earth, then, in order, you will need to:
- traceron the walls and partitions, the precise location of each device and possible secondary tables ;
- drill housing slots recessed;
- lay the main board and sub-boards (preferably pre-wired);
- fix to the wall, the 2 sections of GTL (floor/painting and painting/ceiling):
- lay out and wire, if necessary, the gaines between the main and secondary switchboards;
- poserthe circuit is a pair of circuitsthe distribution ducts between the switchboard and the first device, then, if applicable, between each device on the circuit;
- slip the cables into the sheathscircuit by circuit, by connecting them, first, to the dedicated slots of the switchboard, then to the devices, before dealing with the following circuit ;
- wire the primary power supplies between the main switchboard, the boxes located at the boundary of the properties and the power supplies of the external points;
- leave, in waitingthe cables provided for the direct device connection (oven, cumulus, radiators, VMC, blind motors, etc.), taking care to insulate the ends;
- Place the hubcaps, cabochons and other caps;
- Tester each circuit and each device;
- Fill out, pay and ship, to CONSUELthe control request form.
Good to know : Circuits should take the shortest possible path. For avoid grooves in plasterboard partitions, a semi-rigid guide, slid through the recessed hole of the devices up to floor or ceiling level, is used to fix the end of the sheath, to then pull it towards the box. Finally, when possible, it is always easier to slip the cables into a sheath before putting it in place.