Electric vehicle batteries are generally reliable, which allows manufacturers to sometimes guarantee them for up to 8 years, as is the case with Tesla. However, the battery loses storage capacity as it is used. This loss of autonomy happens more or less quickly depending on the maintenance that is carried to the battery. Having an average lifespan of 5 years, this element is likely to break down well before this period in the event of excessive stress. How to preserve the battery of an electric car? Explanations.
Respect the optimal charge level
The degradation of the battery of an electric car is an unavoidable phenomenon, but this will occur more or less late depending on its use. Better use of the car makes it possible to maintain the storage capacity of the battery in good condition and to do this, it is important to respect the optimal charge level recommended by the manufacturers. The optimal charge level for an electric vehicle battery is between 20 and 80%. This means that the battery should never be charged beyond 80% and it should not discharge below 20%. Indeed, the maximum charge is not supported by the battery while the complete discharge can leave consequences on the cells composing this one. Recharging the battery beyond 80% and letting it discharge below 20% is not a big deal, provided you don’t make it a habit. Nevertheless, it is strictly inadvisable to go below the 5% mark.
Drive the car regularly
Users of electric vehicles wishing to preserve the health of their battery will be tempted to limit the use of their vehicle. The lifespan of an electric car battery is expressed in recharging cycles, many owners think that they should limit their trips in order to save on recharging cycles. To work well, however, the battery needs to be used, which involves regular driving. In this sense, the electric car is not suitable for the occasional driver. Indeed, when the vehicle is left stationary for too long, the battery will drain to the threshold that will put it in danger. In the event that the user has no choice but to leave his vehicle unused, whether during holidays or for other reasons, it is recommended to recharge it up to 60 or 70%. It is also preferable to choose covered and cool parking to protect the vehicle from extreme temperatures.
Favor short refills
Heat is the biggest enemy of an electric vehicle battery. Anything that represents a heat source is likely to damage the cells that make it up. To preserve its storage capacity, it is therefore preferable to avoid any source of heat. Long charging is one of them as it exposes the battery to high temperatures. Instead of charging the battery all at once, prefer small charges of 40-50%, but more often. In addition, small charges also save on recharging cycle and extend the life of the battery. Indeed, the batteries have an average lifespan of 1,000 charge cycles; one cycle is equivalent to a 100% recharge. By recharging up to 50%, the user does not complete a charge cycle.
Limit DC recharges
DC charging means fast direct current charging accessible from public electric vehicle charging stations. Fast charging involves high power flow to fill the battery faster, but also causes high temperature. Although fast charging is more comfortable in terms of time, too frequent use of DC charging is likely to damage the battery. Thus, it is advisable to favor normal daily charging. It is quite possible to gain 80% autonomy during the night by using a 7 kW wallbox. At the same time, the user will benefit from off-peak hours when the price of electricity is cheaper.
Reduce the use of air conditioning and heating
Heating and air conditioning are essential equipment in regions with extreme temperatures. It is therefore not easy to do without it, yet this equipment draws energy directly from the battery. By limiting the use of heating and air conditioning, the user is able to optimize the range of the car and thus recharge the vehicle less often, which will have an impact on the longevity of the battery. According to studies, when the outside temperature is low and the heating works, the loss of autonomy of the car is likely to reach 40%. The car will therefore only benefit from half of its autonomy, which will limit the driver in his movements.