Energy consumption being one of the main items of expenditure in a house, finding a way to reduce its bill has become the daily battle of every household. The heat pump was created to provide heating and the production of domestic hot water in an economical and efficient way.. How does this device work and above all, what are the different types of heat pumps?
Principles of operation of a heat pump
The heat pump is a device that aims to bring clean, renewable and free energy into the house, drawing its source from the environment. Indeed, the very principle of a heat pump is to capture external heat from the air, ground or water and then transform it to a temperature high enough to be able to heat the home. To be able to capture and restore energy, a heat pump must be equipped with a certain number of elements. It is thus equipped with sensors in contact with air, earth or water, a pump installed outside or inside the house and a heat distribution device. Be careful, do not be mistaken either, a heat pump will always need electricity to be able to operate: you still have to spend 1kWh to recover 3kWh from the outside!
To the question of whether the heat pump is really ecological, the answer will be “yes” for some, arguing that it allows very interesting energy savings, forgetting that it emits many greenhouse gases via the electricity it needs. The heat pump can even replace a conventional heating device if it is installed in a properly insulated house.
This machine, described as “revolutionary” by some, works thanks to an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser and an expander. Within the evaporator, the heat extracted from the outside will be transformed into vapor. In the compressor, the gas will increase in temperature up to 90°C. The role of the condenser will be to restore the heat source while the expansion valve will allow the temperature of the refrigerant to drop once the heat has been restored. To diffuse the heat in the house, the use of a radiator or a heated floor will suffice.
The air / water heat pump
The air/water heat pump, as its name suggests, uses the heat from the air to transform it into energy via a heating water circuit. It thus makes it possible to supply the radiators, the heated floors or even the sanitary water.
The biggest advantage of this model is certainly its ease of use and installation. The air/water heat pump can easily replace an existing thermal boiler. No need to change the heating circuit or the radiators. In terms of performance, again, the air/water heat pump has a coefficient of performance between 3.5 and 4.2, i.e. the ratio between the electrical energy consumed and the thermal energy produced is acceptable. . Eligible for the tax credit, it is a profitable investment.
On the downside, air/water heat pumps can show lower performance when the outside temperature is low. The colder it is, the less they work. The ideal is to opt for a hybrid boiler operating with a gas boiler and a heat pump at the same time to avoid this inconvenience.
Air to air heat pump
An air-to-air heat pump has the ability to draw heat from the air and transform it into energy by blowing hot air into the house. Composed of an outdoor unit, the heat pump will use this terminal to capture the calories which will be integrated into the refrigerant. The latter will evaporate and then be sucked up and compressed by the compressor. The liquid will then go to the condenser which will produce the heat to be shared through the indoor units.
The advantage of the air/air heat pump is that it is adaptable, that is to say that it can be installed new or in renovation, in apartments and houses. Adapting to all rooms of the habitat, this model is also reversible and can therefore be used as an air conditioner in summer. Another advantage: it is also sanitizing if you install a filter against pollen, mites and other pests.
The other side of the coin is that the air/air heat pump has some drawbacks, in particular concerning performance, which depends on the outside temperature. Like the air/water model, the effectiveness of the device is reduced when it is cold outside. Moreover, this device is not eligible for the tax credit.
The water / water heat pump
Unlike air/air or air/water heat pumps, the water/water heat pump draws heat from groundwater, the temperature of which is generally higher. Of course, there are other possibilities including rivers or lakes. To operate this type of heat pump, it is necessary to make a vertical drilling or use a well. But be careful, it should not be too deep either because it would take a lot of electricity to convey the energy, which would diminish the interest of the device.
The main advantage of this model is that it provides warmth, regardless of the outside temperature. On the other hand, it will be necessary to mobilize a significant budget for its installation because the realization of a drilling in particular is expensive. The regulations are quite strict in the modification of basements, so it is necessary to inquire beforehand.
Thanks to these ingenious heat pump devices, it is possible to take advantage of less expensive energy while being environmentally friendly, especially in regions that do not experience excessively cold weather in winter… Thanks to tax credits, with the reduction in VAT and aid of all kinds, investment also becomes more interesting.
How much does a professional heat pump cost?
The cost of installing a heat pump is calculated according to the model chosen. Of course, each type of heat pump has advantages and disadvantages which means that each model will more or less adapt to your installation.
Installation of an air-to-water aerothermal heat pump
The air-to-water aerothermal heat pump extracts heat from the air and redistributes it to the hot water installation. Among this type of model, a distinction is made between low temperature heat pumps and high temperature heat pumps.
- For a low-temperature aerothermal heat pump, plan a budget of 5,000 to 9,000 euros, excluding installation.
- For a high temperature aerothermal heat pump, plan a budget of 10,000 to 15,000 euros, excluding installation.
For the installation of an air-water heat pump, count an average of 2,000 euros of labor.
Installation of an air-to-air aerothermal heat pump
The air-to-air heat pump draws heat from the outside air and injects it into the air in the house. It is therefore not intended for heating domestic water.
For an air-air heat pump, plan a budget of 6,000 to 10,000 euros, excluding installation.
For the installation of this type of model, count an average of 500 to 600 euros.
Installation of a water-to-water hydrothermal heat pump
The hydrothermal water-water heat pump takes heat from the water of a well or groundwater and redistributes it in the installation of the house.
A distinction is made between the hydrothermal heat pump with horizontal collectors, buried at a shallow depth to cover a large surface, and the hydrothermal heat pump with vertical collectors, buried deeply to cover a small surface.
- For a hydrothermal heat pump with horizontal sensors, plan a budget of 10,000 to 18,000 euros, excluding installation.
- For a hydrothermal heat pump with vertical sensors, plan a budget of 15,000 to 20,000 euros, excluding installation.
For the installation of this type of model, count 3,000 to 5,000 euros on average.
The cost of installing and using a heat pump
The price of installing a heat pump represents a significant investment, but the energy savings you achieve with this type of device allow you to compensate for it quickly.
Be aware that the installation of this type of device is expensive, because it is complex. Indeed, several professionals are mobilized to connect the device to your home, carry out the necessary drilling, and install the heat pump itself.
Accordingly, the cost of installing such a device will cost you between 500 euros and 5 thousand euros. However, the purchase of the equipment allows you to take advantage of an attractive tax credit.
Despite this high budget, it is essential to hire a professional to install a heat pump. The device is complex and requires a certain know-how. Do not hesitate to make several free quotes from professionals in order to find the service that suits you at the best value for money.
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